What humanity will gain by going to Mars

Leland Melvin: So, for humans to live on Mars and not just make a lot of potatoes and live off the potatoes for a while it’s just the habitat, the systems itself for a robust life support system that’s going to keep you alive for this long period of time. I mean we go to the space station that’s been up there since 2000 and its been working, but we have a day and a half trip to get something to the space station if something fails and we need a spare part. Mars is going to take six to eight months to get something there. So trying to build systems that are super redundant but also have ways to fix things like with 3-D printing. I mean that’s another thing that we have on the space station but we haven’t had to utilize it for making things that are critical that are in situ [ph] right there. And so I think that is one of the things a habitat that’s bullet proof. The food aspects, you know, eating food that not only tastes good but it also has a nutritional value that you’re going to get all the nutrients that you need to function and liver for this extended period of time. The Martian environment is very harsh with the thin atmosphere, 3/8ths G, solar radiation, all these things, building suits that can handle that when you’re doing these excursions and going out and cleaning the solar panels and doing these things having robust systems that will keep you alive.

[0:06:37.4] And then just water and food. I think I heard it’s going to take 24,000 pounds of food for I think a colony of four or five to live up there so do you pre-position? Do you fly those and pre-position that there and hope that a dust storm or something doesn’t wipe it out and know that it’s still there? And then a shelf life of five years, whereas the shelf life for the food on the space station is 18 months, so a five year shelf life and every time an item of food sits there for another month, another month, another month it loses nutritional value, it loses flavor, it loses texture. So making sure that we have something that people are going to want to eat and will eat to stay healthy in this environment. [0:07:23.1]

[0:02:32.5] Leland Melvin: We as a race, the human race, are intrinsically curious and we are wired in our DNA is that we are explorers. We look up at the night sky we wonder what’s up there, especially as children. And so this journey of exploring the things around us, whether they are close or far, that’s what we do, that’s what we do as humans. And I think all the things that we’ve done with exploration, whether it’s walking on the moon or building an International Space Station, all these things help advance life back on earth. And so exploration leads us to a better life, heart pacemakers, smoke detectors, all these things that have come out of the space program. But it’s also not just the technological things, but it’s the part that brings us together as a humanity. I was in space on my first commission with African-American, Asian American, French, German, Russian, the first female commander, people we used to fight against are now breaking bread at 17,500 miles an hour going around the planet every 90 minutes seeing a sunrise and a sunset every 45 while breaking bread listening to Sade Smooth Operator. That was surreal. That blew my mind and it gave me this perspective shift when I look back at the planet like Ron Garan’s book Orbital Perspective.

[0:03:51.4] And so as we do this space station thing, as we maybe go back to the moon and build a habitat, but eventually we’re going to be going to another planet. And Mars is our closest neighbor that we can get to; there are potential resources there; there’s water at the poles; iron is in the soil that we can turn into other things, the perchlorates. So I think that as a race of people I think it’s imperative that we continue to explore, but also that we visit this neighbor that might have been like our planet at one time before. So this can be a harbinger of maybe things to come that we need to understand what happened there and what’s going to potentially happen here on earth. No matter what that timeframe is understanding that is very important.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/bigthink/main/~3/WkK48w40z0c/what-humanity-will-gain-by-going-to-mars




Is Time Travel Possible? Science Has Answers

Time travel is, perhaps, the most overused plot device in movies and television. Yet, we are still fascinated by it and still wonder if it’s possible to travel back to the past or into the future. Luckily, scientists have been asking the same question for years, and have some answers.

Whether it’s via flux capacitor or executing a slingshot maneuver around the sun or taking a wormhole, science fiction has come up with all sorts of ways for humans to travel through time.

Unfortunately, time travel is not nearly as easy in real life.

You see, legendary physicist Albert Einstein wondered about it himself in 1905 and came up with an answer by 1915, which I’m sure many scientists would love to ask him about if time travel to the past were possible.

But as it turns out, while travelling back in time is not impossible, it’s beyond our technological and scientific capabilities at the moment.

Einstein published his theory of special relativity in 1915, and it basically states that time does not pass at the same rate for everyone.

So, if a person were to somehow travel near the speed of light for a few years, they would arrive back on Earth and discover that time moved faster for everyone else on the planet, meaning everyone you knew could very well be dead while you only aged a few years during your trip in space.

It’s kind of a scary and cool thing at the same time, and scientists can prove the science is sound.

“Indeed, we can jump forward into the future as much as we want,” Ohio State University astrophysicist Paul Sutter says. “It’s only a matter of going really, really fast. The faster you move through space, the slower you move through time. We’ve been able to measure this with ultra-precise atomic clocks in jet airplanes, and the precision offered by the GPS system needs to take this into account. Sci-fi always seem to require complicated contraptions to jump in time, when all you need is a very large rocket.”

Sure, we can shave off a few seconds or several minutes using modern rockets, but in order to travel years into the future without aging very much at all, we would need a ship capable of much faster speeds.

“If one were to depart from the Earth in a spaceship that could accelerate continuously at a comfortable 1 G, one would begin to approach the speed of light relative to the Earth within about a year,” Montana State University professor of physics William Hiscock explained to Scientific American. “As the ship continued to accelerate, it would come ever closer to the speed of light, and its clocks would appear to run at an ever slower rate relative to the Earth. Under such circumstances, a round trip to the center of our galaxy and back to the Earth–a distance of some 60,000 light-years–could be completed in only a little more than 40 years of ship time. Upon arriving back at the Earth, the astronaut would be only 40 years older, while 60,000 years would have passed on the Earth.”

Hiscock went on to point out that while the laws of physics would not prohibit such a trip, current engineering would.

“Such a trip would pose formidable engineering problems: the amount of energy required, even assuming a perfect conversion of mass into energy, is greater than a planetary mass,” he said.

So, travelling to the future is possible, but there would likely not be a way back since travelling back to the past is a far more difficult, if not totally impossible task.

“When it comes to the past,” Sutter said, “the mathematics of general relativity does allow a few strange scenarios where you can end up in your own past. But all of these scenarios end up violating other known physics, like requiring negative mass or infinitely long rotating cylinders.”

In short, Einstein’s theory of relativity is not to blame for not being able to travel back in time, other laws of physics are to blame.

Hiscock concurs, and noted that there is no evidence that any such time travel has occurred or is occurring.

“No experiment or observation has ever indicated that time travel is occurring in our universe,” he said. “Much work has been done by theoretical physicists in the past decade to try to determine whether, in a universe that is initially without time travel, one can build a time machine–in other words, if it is possible to manipulate matter and the geometry of space-time in such a way as to create new paths that circle back in time.”

Of course, an even higher authority on the question of time travel is the late Stephen Hawking, the world renowned physicist who wrote about time travel in his posthumously published final work “Brief Answers to the Big Questions”.

“Rapid space travel and travel back in time can’t be ruled out according to our present understanding,” Hawking wrote. “Einstein showed that it would take an infinite amount of rocket power to accelerate a spaceship to beyond the speed of light.”

But Hawking proposed that wormholes could be the solution to travelling both to the future and back to the past, given certain circumstances.

“So the only way to get from one side of the galaxy to the other in reasonable time would seem to be if we could warp space-time so much that we created a little tube or wormhole,” he wrote.

“This could connect the two sides of the galaxy and act as a shortcut to get from one to the other and back while your friend were still alive. Such wormholes have been seriously suggested as being within the capabilities of a future civilization. But if you can travel from one side of the galaxy to the other in a week or two you could go back through another wormhole and arrive back before you set out. You could even manage to travel back in time with a single wormhole if its two ends were moving relative to each other.”

But Hawking also observed that we haven’t noticed any travelers from the future, so time travel must be relegated to just travelling into the future for now.

“A possible way to reconcile time travel with the fact that we don’t seem to have had any visitors from the future would be to say that such travel can occur only in the future. In this view one would say space-time in our past was fixed because we have observed it and seen that it is not warped enough to allow travel into the past. On the other hand the future is open. So we might be able to warp it enough to allow time travel. But because we can warp space-time only in the future, we wouldn’t be able to travel back to the present time or earlier.”

There you have it. Perhaps, one day, a really intelligent human being will make a groundbreaking discovery or invention that makes two-way time travel possible. Of course, the risks of altering the past to our own peril is a very real possibility that we should think about before travelling to the past. After all, various paradoxes such as the grandfather paradox could accidentally wipe you out of existence. The smallest change could end up having consequences that sweep across time. So, maybe it’s a good thing we can’t travel there yet. The future, on the other hand, is possible for those of us who are willing to live on a spaceship for several years leaving everyone and everything you know behind. But the problem is that we have to leave everything and everyone we know behind, and there’s no turning back the clock to change our mind. Once it’s done, it’s done. And who knows what the future could look like.

But short of a real life Doc Brown from Back to the Future to invent a time machine that can provide instantaneous travel to the past and to the future, we’ll just have to settle for what is currently possible and wait for that moment to arrive. It’s just a matter of time.

Featured Image: YouTube screenshot




A controversial theory claims present, past, and future exist at the same time

  • Time may not be passing at all, says the Block Universe Theory.
  • Time travel may be possible.
  • Your perception of time is likely relative to you and limited.

We seem to perceive time as passing in one direction. After all, we can’t just just forward to the future or revisit our past if we felt like it. Every minute of every day appears to move us ahead, pulling us through our lives towards an inexorable demise. At least that’s what the conventional experience of time tells us. But what if your present, past, and future all existed already? Time, from that point of view, would not flow.

The block universe theory says that our universe may be looked at as a giant four-dimensional block of spacetime, containing all the things that ever happen, explained Dr. Kristie Miller, the joint director for the Centre for Time at the University of Sydney.

In the block universe, there is no “now” or present. All moments that exist are just relative to each other within the three spacial dimensions and one time dimension. Your sense of the present is just reflecting where in the block universe you are at that instance. The “past” is just a slice of the universe at an earlier location while the “future” is at a later location.

So, is time just an elaborate mind trick? And more importantly – is time travel possible?

Dr. Miller’s answer to that is “yes”. Of course, just hypothetically, since we’d need to figure out first how to travel at “some reasonable percentage of the speed of light”. Going to the past would entail using wormholes, like “short cuts through space-time”.

Block Universe diagram.Credit: ABC Science

Now, if you did manage to get back in time, you won’t be able to change it. This is because your past is always simultaneously someone else’s future. So if you travel to the past, you’re just making that future the way it is. So don’t worry about “grandfather paradoxes” – your time machine has already been incorporated into the scheme of things.

‘If I travel to the past, I am part of the past,” said Miller. “Importantly, I was always part of the past.”

What’s more – maybe the past has already been altered by time travelers. How would we be able to tell if it hasn’t? “For all we know, the reason the past is the way it is, is in part due to the presence of time travelers,” added Miller.

By that logic, what you do tomorrow will make it the way it is, with you fulfilling a certain destiny writ in time, which is in itself more of an illusion than a fundamental property of nature.

Certainly, with such claims, the block universe theory has its detractors. One big criticism is that the future shouldn’t exist yet. Physicist Lee Smolin wrote that “The future is not now real and there can be no definite facts of the matter about the future.” Furthermore, as he added at a 2017 conference, what is real is just “the process by which future events are generated out of present events.”

Another negative of this idea is if the block universe is static, what is the point of anything? Can you have progress? Answering that is the “evolving block universe” model which sees the block of the universal space-time growing rather than staying the same. The surface of such a volume would represent the present moment. It’s when “the indefiniteness of the future changes to the definiteness of the past,” as described it cosmologist George Ellis. Under that model, the changing part would be the future.

While the debates are going to continue, the block universe theory is one of the most promising approaches that can reconcile the cosmological view of time with our everyday experience. What may be certain – time is much more than what it appears to be. Unraveling its mysteries is integral to understanding the human experience.

New controversial theory: Past, present, future exist simultaneously

Political division is nothing new. Throughout American history there have been numerous flare ups in which the political arena was more than just tense but incideniary. In a letter addressed to William Hamilton in 1800, Thomas Jefferson once lamented about how an emotional fervor had swept over the populace in regards to a certain political issue at the time.




Should Mankind Be Worried? Here Are 5 Alarming Prophecies Written By Nostradamus

Michel de Notre Dame, historically known as Nostradamus is without a doubt one of the greatest prophets to ever exist. The French apothecary is believed to have foreseen countless historical evens long before they occurred. According to reports, Nostradamus is said to have predicted the US Moon Landing, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, he is believed to have accurately predicted the Death of Henry II, and the JFK & RFK Assassinations among many other historical events.

2018, is of particular interest for those who analyze and study his work. The years has been extremely interesting both scientifically and historically, and despite the fact that many people believe not much will change in comparison to previous years, there are those–specifically those following Nostradamus’ work–believe great changes are upon us.

The French apothecary and seer is believed to have started having visions of the future at a relatively early age.

If we take a look at his greatest work written down in his book ‘The Prophecies’, Nostradamus composed over a thousand four-line poetic verses called “quatrains.” It is precisely in these quatrains where his secrets lay embedded.

Despite the fact that many academic scholars argue that the associations made between historic events and Nostradamus’s quatrains are mostly the product mistranslations, there are millions of people around the world, including news portals around the world that credit him with predicting countless major historic events.

Some of his most famous predictions are listed here below.


The Death of Henry II

“The young lion will overcome the older one, On the field of combat in a single battle; He will pierce his eyes through a golden cage, two wounds made one, then he dies a cruel death.”

In the summer of 1559, King Henry II of France referred to as the older one lined up to joust the Comte de Montgomery, the young lion, six years his junior, on the fields of France or combat. In the final pass, Montgomery’s lance burst through the king’s visor splintering to pieces. Both of them did have lions on their shields. Two shards injured him, one pierced his eye and lodged in the Kings head. Henry II suffered for 10 days before dying in his bed.

The US Moon Landing

He will come to travel to the corner of Luna, where he will be captured and put in a strange land, The unripe fruits to be subject of great scandal, great blame, to one, great praise.

He referred to the Astronauts traveling to the moon, Luna. He, the astronaut was captured on film. Nostradamus used the phrase “the Eagle” as an allusion to the U.S.A. Is it a coincidence that the American lunar landing craft happened to be named “the Eagle”?

Oh, did I say he predicted Donald Trump as becoming President of the United States?

But, what does Nostradamus have for 2018?


The Largest Recorded Earthquake

So far, 2018 and even a part of 2017 was marked by catastrophic earthquakes around the globe. However, it is said that Nostradamus foresaw the largest earthquake in the history of the United States, especially affecting the western area of the United States. However, despite predicting the earthquake in the US, it is believed that the power of the earthquake will be felt in other countries around the world. Let’s hope he was wrong.

People will live more than 200 years

It is believed that the great French seer predicted great advances in medicine, which will extend the average lifespan of human to about 200 years. It is said that Nostradamus wrote how an 80-year-old will look like a 50, year old according. Numerous advancements in medicine have been made and Nostradamus’ predictions may soon become a reality.

Radiation will burn the planet

“Kings steal forests, the sky will open; the fields will be burned by heat,” Nostradamus wrote. This is believed to be a warning that the destruction of Earth’s rainforests will lead to a dangerous hole in the ozone layer and how Earth could be exposed to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Maybe it’s time to pay attention.

Language differences will disappear

“After the invention of a new engine, the world will be like in the days before Babel.” According to some interpretations of Nostradamus’ work, this new ‘engine; could be used like modern-day computers.

The collapse of the global economy

“The rich will die many times,” the French prophet wrote in his quatrains. Curiously, many other ‘Prophets’ like Baba Vanga, Edgar Cayce predicted the same.

Featured Image Credit

Ivan

Ivan is editor-in-chief at ancient-code.com, he also writes for Universe Explorers.
You may have seen him appear on the Discovery and History Channel.




AI Expert Claims Artificial Intelligence Will Become ‘Billions Of Times’ Smarter Than Humans

According to an expert in Artificial Intelligence, machines will become billions of times smarter than humans, and mankind needs to fuse with machines in order to survive.

Artificial intelligence could evolve to become “billions of times smarter” than humans according to Ian Pearson, a futurist at Futurizon who says people will need to merge with machines to survive.

The fact is that AI can go further than humans, it could be billions of times smarter than humans at this point,” said Pearson during a panel hosted by CNBC at the World Government Summit in Dubai.

“So we really do need to make sure that we have some means of keeping up.”

Will AI destroy the human race? Image Credit: Shutterstock

Pearson continued, “The way to protect against that is to link that AI to your brain so you have the same IQ… as the computer. I don’t actually think it’s safe, just like Elon Musk… to develop these superhuman computers until we have a direct link to the human brain… and then don’t get way ahead.”

Pearson’s comments echo the ex-engineer of Uber and Google, Anthony Levandowski, who formed the first church that worships an artificially intelligent being.

The futuristic religion, known as the “Way of the Future,” states that our species can improve itself by following the instructions of a robot that is “a billion times smarter than humans.”

WOTF will eventually have a gospel called ‘The Manual’, as well as rituals and even a physical place of worship.

Levandowski named himself “WOTF” dean, giving him total control until his death or resignation.

Interestingly, Pearson’s comments echo those made by Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk who spoke about Artificial Intelligence saying: “Over time I think we will probably see a closer merger of biological intelligence and digital intelligence.”

Musk continued, “It’s mostly about the bandwidth, the speed of the connection between your brain and the digital version of yourself, particularly output.” Musk has since founded a startup company called Neuralink which aims to explore linking human brains to computers.

Numerous experts have spoken out about the dangers of Artificial Intelligence, as well as its benefits.

Should we be worried about AI? Image Credit: Shutterstock

Professor Stephen Hawking, for example, says how we should be very careful when dealing and developing AI. The world-renowned scientist has said that Artificial Intelligence could become the worst event in the history of our civilization, urging experts to “employ best practice and effective management.”

In 2017, during a talk at the Web Summit technology conference, Hawking said that AI can in theory not only emulate human intelligence but greatly exceed it. Hawking also said that there is a danger that Artificial Intelligence could become so advanced that it may develop a will of its own.

Despite the fact that many people welcome AI into society, experts in the subject remain worried.

Elon Musk seems to agree with Hawking when it comes to AI. Mr. Musk warns we must tread carefully when it comes to AI, and called for companies developing AI systems to slow down in order to ensure they don’t unintentionally create something extremely dangerous for humans.




Here are 10 Fascinating Predictions That Nostradamus Got Right

He was an Astrologer and physician.

Born Michel de Nostradame, December 14 or 21, Nostradamus as he is more commonly known, published collections of prophecies that have since become famous worldwide. Nostradamus is best known for his book Les Propheties, the first edition of which appeared in 1555 and contained 353 quatrains.

Even though academic scholars state that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus’s quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations, millions of people and mayor press agencies credit him with predicting many major world events.

Here are ten of the most interesting predictions made by Nostradamus that apparently did come true, it depends on what you actually believe of course:

  1. Atomic Bomb

Near the gates and within two cities There will be scourges the like of which was never seen, Famine within plague, people put out by steel, Crying to the great immortal God for relief.

Even though many claim that this description can be attributed to several wartime atrocities it is a very good description of the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  1. Death of Henry II

“The young lion will overcome the older one, On the field of combat in a single battle; He will pierce his eyes through a golden cage, Two wounds made one, then he dies a cruel death.”

In the summer of 1559, King Henry II of France referred to as the older one lined up to joust the Comte de Montgomery, the young lion, six years his junior, on the fields of France or combat. In the final pass, Montgomery’s lance burst through the king’s visor splintering to pieces. Both of them did have lions on their shields. Two shards injured him, one pierced his eye and lodged in the kings head. Henry II suffered for 10 days before dying in his bed.

  1. Hitler

“From the depths of the West of Europe, A young child will be born of poor people, He who by his tongue will seduce a great troop; His fame will increase towards the realm of the East.” “Beasts ferocious with hunger will cross the rivers,  The greater part of the battlefield will be against Hister.
Into a cage of iron will the great one be drawn, When the child of Germany observes nothing.”

Hitler was born on April 20, 1889. In Western Europe to very poor parents. With exceptional oratory skills, he moved the nation to action in the years following World War I. Hister is believed to be a spelling error. The German army invaded France, Beasts ferocious with hunger will cross the rivers, and it is believed that the “Greater Battlefield” refers to the Allied powers that defeated Hitler.

  1. London Fire

The blood of the just will commit a fault at London, Burnt through lighting of twenty threes the six: The ancient lady will fall from her high place, Several of the same sect will be killed.

The Great London Fire of 1666, which started in a baker’s shop burned for three days obliterating all of medieval London, six deaths were recorded.

  1. Sept. 11, 2001

Earthshaking fire from the center of the Earth Will cause tremors around the New City. Two great rocks will war for a long time, Then Arethusa will redden a new river.

It is believed that these lines represent the attack that occurred on September 11, 2001, on the Twin Towers.

  1. JFK & RFK Assassinations

The great man will be struck down in the day by a thunderbolt, An evil deed foretold by the bearer of a petition. According to the prediction,  another falls at night time. Conflict at Reims, London and a pestilence in Tuscany.”

The Great Man, John Kennedy received several death threats before being gunned down- a thunderbolt, on November 22, 1963. Bobby Kennedy was killed just after Midnight on June 5, 1968.

  1. Napoleon

“PAU, NAY, LORON will be more of fire than of the blood,  To swim in praise, the great one to flee to the confluence.  He will refuse entry to the Piuses,  The depraved ones and the Durance will keep them imprisoned. “

Pau, Nay, and Oloron are three towns in France, it is believed that the capitalization of the towns hints that something is hidden within the words. If you rearrange the words you get NAPAULON ROY, or Napoleon the King in French. Napoleon did not have a noble lineage and Napoleon imprisoned Popes Pius VI and VII.

  1. Moon Landing

He will come to travel to the corner of Luna,  where he will be captured and put in a strange land, The unripe fruits to be subject of great scandal,  great blame, to one, great praise.

He referred to the Astronauts traveling to the moon, Luna. He, the astronaut was captured on film. Nostradamus used the phrase “the Eagle” as an allusion to the U.S.A. Is it a coincidence that the American lunar landing craft happened to be named “the Eagle”?

  1. Charles De Gaulle

“Hercules King of Rome and of Annemark,  Three times one surnamed de Gaulle will lead,  Italy and the one of St Mark to tremble,  First monarch, renowned above all.”

Charles de Gaulle was the French leader three times. He was a French prime minister, President of the French Fifth Republic and leader of the French Free Forces.

  1. Louis Pasteur

“The lost thing is discovered, hidden for many centuries. Pasteur will be celebrated almost as a God-like figure. This is when the moon completes her great cycle, But by other rumors, he shall be dishonored.”

Louis Pasteur is credited with the discovery of microbial decay. In 95′ Gerald Geison actually ran a story in the famous New York times suggesting that Pasteur gave misleading accounts on his preparation of the anthrax vaccine.

Oh and… Nostradamus actually predicted the election of Donal Trump as president of the United States.

Nostradamus wrote: “The great shameless, audacious bawler. He will be elected governor of the army: The boldness of his contention. The bridge broken, the city faint from fear.”

Furthermore, if we look into another one of his predictions, In Century 1, 40 one of Nostradamus’ predictions reads:

“The false trumpet concealing madness will cause Byzantium to change its laws.”

If we look at Quatrain 50, we will find that Nostradamus writes:

“The Republic of the big city” will engage in costly military operations, ordered by the “trumpet”, this has been interpreted by many as a sign of Nuclear War.

Source:

Wikipedia, Image Credit Wikimedia Commons.




Scientists have created an Artificial Intelligence that can ‘read your mind’

Brace yourself, Artificial Intelligence is becoming more powerful by the minute.

According to a study by researchers from Japan, Artificial Intelligence is one step closer to mind reading machines illustrated in popular science fiction films.

Scientists have recently created a set of ‘deep learning’ algorithm, modeled on the human brain which can, eventually, be used to decipher the human brain.

Japanese scientists have developed an algorithm that can read human thoughts with a disturbing accuracy, according to details from a recently published study available on bioRxiv.

The scary part? Other than the fact that we’ll soon have AI running around reading your mind (joking), is that it isn’t the first time its been done. However, the difference is that earlier methods and results were much simpler, deconstructing pictures based on two main characteristics: Their pixels and basic shape.

Some of the images processed by the AI.  Image Credit Kamitani et al

“Our brain processes visual information by hierarchically extracting different levels of features or components of different complexities,” said Yukiyasu Kamitani, one of the scientists involved in the study. “These neural networks or AI models can be used as a proxy for the hierarchical structure of the human brain.”

Through various tests, artificial intelligence was able to analyze electrical signals from the brain and determine what images each subject was observing or imagining.

In order to achieve this, the system has a set of artificial neural networks, which learn to think like a human brain through simulations.

The study lasted ten months, in which three people viewed images from three different categories such as natural phenomena, artificial geometric shapes and letters of the alphabet.

Comparing 50 different photographs and the result of the magnetic resonances obtained from the brain of each observer, the neural network developed by the scientific team learned to interpret the human thought.

By reconstructing people’s brain patterns, the algorithm was able to define the images they observed, between owls, showcases, red mailboxes and airplanes. In addition, it reproduced images such as swans, leopards, bowling balls or fish that each person imagined.

“Whereas it has long been thought that the externalization or visualization of states of the mind is a challenging goal in neuroscience, brain decoding using machine learning analysis of fMRI activity nowadays has enabled the visualization of perceptual content,” said the research paper.

“Although sophisticated decoding and encoding models have been developed to render human brain activity into images or movies or to the matching to exemplar images or movies (Naselaris et al., 2009; Nishimoto et al., 2011), failing to combine visual features of multiple hierarchical levels, the methods were essentially limited to the image reconstruction with low-level image bases.”

Featured image credit: Shutterstock.

Source: Deep image reconstruction from human brain activity

Ivan

Ivan is editor-in-chief at ancient-code.com, he also writes for Universe Explorers.
You may have seen him appear on the Discovery and History Channel.




Should we be worried? Artificial Intelligence can now learn new words by talking

Much has been said about Artificial Intelligence in 2017, and many incredible developments have been made, as mankind watched the first AI become the citizen of a country.

But are we ready to let Artificial Intelligence-Robots—into our society? Are we really ready to welcome them with open arms?

Many experts are worried about Artificial Intelligence and how fast it’s being developed.

Now, scientists at the University of Osaka have developed a new method that allows Artificial Intelligence to learn words in a conversation by implicit confirmation.

Its a new era, and AI is learning fast.

This is Sophia, the Robot who said it would destroy humans and who wants to start a family. She is also the first robot to receive a citizenship of a country.

Many robots, chatbots, and voice assistant applications have appeared in recent years; however, in these systems, computers answer questions based on what was programmed in advance. They cannot come up with their answers. Or at least they were not able to. But as experts want AI to become even more intelligent, they need the AI to be able to have complex conversations with humans.

There is another process in which a computer learns from humans by asking simple and repeated questions; however, if the computer only asks questions such as “What is XYZ?” to acquire knowledge, users will lose interest in talking to the computer.

Therefore, the group of scientists led by Professor Komatani formed an implicit confirmation method by which Artificial Intelligence acquires the category of an unknown word during the conversation with humans.

The purpose of this method is for the system to predict the category of an unknown word of the user’s input during the conversation, to make implicit authentication requests to the user and to have the user reply to these inquiries. In this way, the system acquires information about the words during the dialogues, according to a statement.

Figure 1. Example of implicit confirmation (credit: Osaka University)

In this method, the ‘system’ decides whether the prediction is correct or not by using the response of the user that follows each request, its context, using automatic learning techniques.

As noted by experts; „this system’s decision performance improved by taking the classification results gained from dialogues with other users into consideration.”

Furthermore, experts note that popular Chatbots in the market talk to anyone in the same way.

However, as dialogue systems become popular in the future, computers will be required to speak by learning from a conversation depending on the situation.

The research results of this group are a new approach towards the realization of dialogue systems in which a computer can become more intelligent through conversation with humans and lead to the development of dialogue systems with the ability to customize responses to the situation of the user.


This research, entitled Lexical Acquisition through Implicit Confirmations over Multiple Dialogues, was presented at SIGDIAL 2017, 18th Annual SIGdial Meeting on August 17, 2017. For more information, click here.

Ivan

Ivan is editor-in-chief at ancient-code.com, he also writes for Universe Explorers.
You may have seen him appear on the Discovery and History Channel.




NASA Warp Drive Project – “Speeds” that Could Take a Spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in Two Weeks

NASA Warp Drive Project – “Speeds” that Could Take a Spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in Two Weeks

Results of his Alcubierre Drive rethink: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20110015936_2011016932.pdf http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/23/science/faster-than-the-speed-of-light.html?_r=0 http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21929300.300-meet-the-nasa-scientist-devising-a-starship-warp-drive.html#.Uht_atL0HmE http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/11/5/001 http://100yss.org/ http://io9.com/5963263/how-nasa-will-build-its-very-first-warp-drive Icarus Interstellar http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/team/harold-white/ Michio Kaku dubbed Alcubierre’s notion a “passport to the universe.” It takes advantage of a quirk in the cosmological code that allows for the expansion and contraction of space-time, and could allow for hyper-fast travel between interstellar destinations.

Results of his Alcubierre Drive rethink: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/cas… http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/23/sci… http://www.newscientist.com/article/m… http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/1… http://100yss.org/ http://io9.com/5963263/how-nasa-will-… Icarus Interstellar http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/tea… Michio Kaku dubbed Alcubierre’s notion a “passport to the universe.” It takes advantage of a quirk in the cosmological code that allows for the expansion and contraction of space-time, and could allow for hyper-fast travel between interstellar destinations. Essentially, the empty space behind a starship would be made to expand rapidly, pushing the craft in a forward direction — passengers would perceive it as movement despite the complete lack of acceleration. Scientists speculate that such a drive could result in “speeds” that could take a spacecraft to Alpha Centauri in a mere two weeks — even though the system is 4.3 light-years away. i09.com Read more here: http://io9.com/5963263/how-nasa-will-… The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity: http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/1… New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/23/sci… 100 Year Starship project http://100yss.org/ Results of his Alcubierre Drive rethink: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/cas… Music credit: mik300z https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DRRi… Vangelis – Echoes – length 7:51 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DRRi…