Did Aliens Build The Pyramids? This Study May Answer The Question Once And For All

For thousands of years, the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt has fascinated humans from around the globe. As the oldest and sole remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, there are many theories as to how these pyramids were constructed. The question most people ask is whether aliens or humans did it.

For years, conspiracy theorists have peddled a claim that human beings could not have possibly built these magnificent structures on their own. They must have had help from above, and they aren’t talking about a deity.

That’s right, many people believe that aliens built the pyramids or at least helped humans do it.

But scientists and archaeologists have repeatedly debunked these theories over the years, and one study, in particular, puts the question to rest once and for all.

University of Amsterdam Physics Professor Daniel Bonn and his team successfully duplicated the way ancient Egyptians moved massive stones from a quarry to the site where the pyramids now stand after researchers found a painting dating back to 1900 B.C. on the wall of a tomb showing over 100 men moving a massive statue using ropes and sledge.

It turns out that the men simply poured a certain amount of water on the sand to make moving heavy objects such as statues and stones across the desert possible.

“Egyptologists thought it was a purely ceremonial act,” Bonn told Live Science. “The question was: Why did they do it?”

They did it because dry sand just clumps up and creates too much drag to pull objects across. But using water helps connect the grains of sand to turn it into a more solid surface.

“If you use dry sand, it won’t work as well, but if the sand is too wet, it won’t work either,” Bonn explained. “There’s an optimum stiffness. It turns out that wetting Egyptian desert sand can reduce the friction by quite a bit, which implies you need only half of the people to pull a sledge on wet sand, compared to dry sand.”

So, the ancient Egyptians were clearly intelligent enough to construct the pyramids and did not use nearly as many laborers to do the job as most people think.

Here’s the video featuring the painting and the experiment via YouTube.

A University of Chicago and Harvard archaeologist Mark Lehner agrees.

After viewing the painting himself and spending years among the Egyptian people and studying their history, he can’t fathom taking their monumental achievement away from them and giving it to alien beings that we don’t even know actually exist.

“I first went to Egypt in 1972 and ended up living there 13 years,” he told PBS. I was imbued with ideas of Atlantis and Edgar Cayce and so on. So I went over, starting from that point of view, but everything I saw told me, day by day, year by year, that they were very human and the marks of humanity are everywhere on them.”

Indeed, from tool markings on the stones to the same quarries where stones are still being cut out in much the same way today to paintings showing exactly how the Egyptians moved the stone and built structures, the evidence that humans built the pyramids is too much to ignore.

“Everything that I have found convinces me more and more that indeed it is this society that built the Sphinx and the Pyramids,” Lehner continued. “Every time I go back to Giza my respect increases for those people and that society, that they could do it. You see, to me, it’s even more fascinating that they did this. And that by doing this they contributed something to the human career and its overall development. Rather than just copping out and saying, ‘There’s no way they could have done this.’ I think that denigrates the people whose evidence we actually find.”

“One of the most compelling pieces of evidence we have is graffiti on ancient stone monuments in places that they didn’t mean to be shown,” he explained, referring to the painting showing laborers moving a statue on a sledge. “Like on foundations when we dig down below the floor level, up in the relieving chambers above the King’s chamber in the Great Pyramid, and in many monuments of the Old Kingdom—temples, other pyramids.”

Lehner even conducted his own experiment, not a miniature experiment like Bonn’s, but with real people and real stones using a real wooden sledge. Only this time, they moved the sledge on wooden rollers, another technique that could have been used.

The results prove that people can move heavy stones efficiently over a distance, thus confirming Bonn’s experiment.

In addition, the Egyptians also used barges to transport stones via rivers and canals and all of these methods and more were likely used to construct the pyramids.

For instance, a man in Michigan built his own Stonehenge by himself using simple techniques, moving and raising stone blocks that weigh anywhere from hundreds of pounds to several tons. The Egyptians could have done the same, but with more manpower.

Lehner also decried the theories that anyone else must have built the pyramids and explained that people who make such suggestions feel lost.

“This was as great as it comes in terms of art and sculpture and building ships from any place on the planet, in the whole repertoire of ancient cultures,” he said. “Why is there such a need to look for yet another culture, to say, “No, it wasn’t these people, it was some civilization that’s lost, even older. To some extent, I think we feel the need to look for a lost civilization on time’s other horizon because we feel lost in our civilization.”

Yet another Great Pyramid expert, Director General of the Giza site Zahi Hawass, concurs.

“We are lucky because we found this whole evidence of the workmen who built the Pyramids,” he said. “We found the artisans. Mark found the bakery, and we found this settlement of the camp, and hieroglyphic inscriptions of the Overseer of the Site of the Pyramid, the Overseer of the West Side of the Pyramid. We found the craftsmen, the man who makes the statue of the Overseer of the Craftsmen, the Inspector of Building Tombs, Director of Building Tombs—I’m telling you all the titles. We found 25 unique new titles connected with these people.”

When asked who built the pyramids, Hawass definitively responded.

“It was the Egyptians who built the Pyramids. The Great Pyramid is dated with all the evidence, I’m telling you now, to 4,600 years, the reign of Khufu. They are not people from a lost civilization. They are not from outer space. They are Egyptian, and their skeletons are here and were examined by scholars and doctors. The race of all the people we found are completely supporting that they are Egyptians.”

The idea that humans were incapable of building these great structures and that we must have had divine help or help from aliens is insulting. Ancient peoples had various techniques for cutting stone and moving it, and also were able to harness manpower in a way that is largely unheard of in today’s modern world. While modern peoples have been able to replace manpower with machines, thus making construction possible with just a small team of people, building such structures like the pyramids required tens of thousands of people using what many today would consider primitive tools and techniques.

But the fact remains that they did build the pyramids, and the human race should be proud of that achievement and learn from it. Because it’s not just Egyptian history. It’s human history. And aliens had nothing to do with it.

Featured Image: Wikimedia




Archaeologists Discover Another Buried Sphinx at the Kom Ombo Temple Near Aswan

Egyptian archaeologists working on a groundwater reduction project at the Kom Ombo Temple in Aswan have discovered a sandstone sphinx, according to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities on Sunday.

The discovery comes as a surprise as in the last few months, archaeologists working in Egypt have uncovered the remains of two Sphinx statues.

Kom Ombo SphinxThe unearthed Sphinx after it was restored. Image Credit: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.

A few weeks ago, we wrote about how construction workers working near the Luxor Temple Complex stumbled across the remains of a buried Sphinx statue.

Initial reports by the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquity suggested that the Sphinx uncovered at Luxor is similar in design to the Great Sphinx of Giza: It has the body of a lion and the head of a human.

The most famous Sphinx in Egypt is without a doubt the massive statue located at the Giza plateau.

The Great Sphinx of Giza is considered an ancient marvel not only because of its size and confusing design but because of the countless mysteries that surround this ancient structure.

Together with the three pyramids, the Great Sphinx found on the plateau of Giza – about 500 km from the place where the new statue was found – is one of the most emblematic monuments of Egypt.

Now, archeologists near Aswan mad another stunning discovery finding another Sphinx statue.

The Great Sphinx found near the Kom Ombo Temple.

Mostafa Waziri, general secretary of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, explained that the piece probably dates from the Ptolemaic dynasty, as the Sphinx statue was found in the southeast side of the temple, in the same place where two sandstone reliefs of King Ptolemy V were discovered two months ago.

The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled over Egypt for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC, and they were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.

The Kom Ombo temple complex was constructed during the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Kom Ombo Temple before reconstructionKom Ombo Temple before reconstruction. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain

Ptolemy V was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. It is noteworthy to mention that to famous Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.

The sculpture, discovery at the Kom Ombo Temple in Aswan bears hieroglyphic and demotic inscriptions and has already been transported to the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization in Fustat, where it will be carefully studied and restored by the archaeological mission to obtain more information about its origin. After restoration, the newly-found Sphinx will be exhibited to the public.




Ancient City That Predates The Pyramids And The First Pharaoh Found In Egypt

A 7,000-year-old city, predating both the Pharaohs and Pyramids has been discovered in Egypt.

A group of French and Egyptian archaeologists has made another surprising discovery in Egypt, as they have excavated the remains of one of the oldest settlements in the world, dating back to the Neolithic period.

The Ministry of Antiquities also announced that this finding “offers a unique opportunity to shed light on the prehistoric communities that lived in the Nile Delta before the reign of the first Pharaonic dynasty.”

The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities released a statement saying that archaeologist had excavated silos contain extensive amounts of animal remains as well as planets, pottery and stone tools, in the fertile lands of Tell el Samara, located in Dacalia, some 140 kilometers north of Cairo.

The settlement dates back to around 5,000 BCE, which means that it effectively predates the construction of the famous pyramids at Giza by at least 2,500 years.

According to experts, the village’s agriculture heavily depended on rain. This discovery may help experts understand the development of the agriculture based on the irrigation system used by the ancient inhabitants of the Nile delta.

كشفت البعثة الأثرية المصرية الفرنسية المشتركة برئاسة د. فردريك جيو، عن أحد أقدم القري المعروفة حتي الآن في منطقة الدلتا…

Posted by ‎Ministry of Antiquities وزارة الآثار‎ on Sunday, September 2, 2018

Dr. Nadia Khedr, a ministry official responsible for Egyptian, Greek, and Roman antiquities on the Mediterranean coast, explained how rain-based plantations at the time may have given ‘early Egyptians’ the ability to start large-scale irrigation farming.

“Analyzing the biological material that has been discovered will present us with a clearer view of the first communities that settled in the Delta and the origins of agriculture and farming in Egypt,” she said.

Lately, Egypt has become a hot zone for archeological discoveries.

Not long ago we reported about the discovery of ‘a second Sphinx’ which was found at Luxor, located several meters beneath the surface.

Furthermore, not long ago, another group of archaeologists discovered what is now considered the oldest cheese in the world in the tomb of Ptahmes, mayor of the ancient city of Memphis, according to a study published in the journal Analytical Chemistry of the American Chemical Society.

Also, a sensational discovery was made when construction workers discovered a massive Granite Sarcophagus in Alexandria. At the time, some experts even thought that the massive unopened granite Sarcophagus may be the resting place of Alexander the Great. However, after the ancient tomb was opened, experts revealed that it was filled with the skeletal remains of three individuals who were most likely soldiers. The tomb was found to date back to the Ptolemaic period between 305 B.C. and 30 B.C.

In addition to all of the above, archaeologists excavating in Southern Egypt has recovered an extremely rare marble head which is believed to depict the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.




10 Reasons Why The Great Pyramid Of Giza May Have Been A Giant Energy Machine

The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the most astonishing structures ever built on Earth. In addition to being a massive, imposing ancient monument, built using mysterious techniques, the structure located at the Giza Plateau has refused to give up all its secret despite hundreds of years of archaeological studies.

Mainstream scholars maintain that the structure was commissioned by Pharaoh Khufu and that it was built as a tomb over a 10- to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC.

However, despite massive efforts to prove the Great Pyramid was Built as a tomb, not a single piece of archaeological evidence has been uncovered through the years that would point to the Pyramid being a massive tomb.

Now if the pyramid wasn’t meant to serve as a tomb, what was its true purpose then?

A view of the Great Pyramid of GizaThe Great Pyraid of Giza. Image Credit: Shutterstock.

Here are 10 reasons why the Great Pyramid of Giza may have been a massive Energy Machine.

To understand how something like this is even possible, we must take a look at the materials the pyramid was built with, as the construction materials the structure was built with contain unique electrical properties: (1)Authors have found that the granite stones that were used in the Pyramids passageways are slightly radioactive, a feature that allows the stone to electrify the air. For some reason, the builders of the pyramid used (2)Dolomite, a material that is proven to be an excellent conductor of electricity, on the inner surfaces of the Great Pyramid. In addition, Tura Limestone–which happens to be an excellent electrical insulator covers the exterior parts of the Great Pyramid.

In addition to all of that, the Great Pyramid of Giza wasn’t placer randomly on where it sits today. (3)The Pyramid is located on a powerful source of underground energy, like many other ancient structures around the globe. (4)The Geology present at the Giza plateau naturally concentrates high amounts of electromagnetic forces of our planet. Beneath the surface, natural electric forces travel are known as telluric currents or Earth current. Telluric currents are an electric current which moves underground or through the sea. Telluric currents result from both natural causes and human activity, and the discrete currents interact in a complex pattern.

There’s evidence that the Ancient Egyptians used electricity thousands of years ago, despite mainstream scholars refusing to accept this idea. (5)If we take a look inside the Great Pyramid’s Corridors and chambers, there is no evidence whatsoever that the ancient builders of the Pyramid used torches or fire to illuminate the interior of the Pyramid as not a single piece of evidence of neither soot or smoke damage has been found in the corridors.

There are reliefs in different Egyptian Temples that show what many authors interpret as massive lightbulbs. Furthermore, if we take a look at the so-called (6)Baghdad Batteries, we will understand that thousands of years ago, these devices actually produced electricity.

As I have mentioned earlier, (7)there isn’t a single piece of evidence that suggests that the Pyramid was a tomb, and this idea is supported by the interior layout of the Pyramid. The Great Pyramid of Giza greatly differs from all other tombs that have been explored in Ancient Egypt.

The interior of the pyramid is cold in terms of design. (8)There are no decorations inside it, different construction materials were used, and not a single mummy has ever been found in its interior.

Latest scientific research has found that (9)the Great Pyramid of Giza focuses electromagnetic energy. This discovery changed everything we know about the Pyramid. The discovery was made by a team of German and Russian researchers who have proved that the Great Pyramid of Giza focuses electromagnetic energy in its chambers and (10)concentrates the electromagnetic energy in its lower part, located beneath the surface. The researchers took an interest in how the Great Pyramid of Giza would interact with electromagnetic waves of a proportional or, in other words, a resonant length.

Now, why would a ‘tomb’ concentrate and focus electromagnetic energy?




Here’s Who Was Inside The ‘Cursed’ Ancient Egyptian Black Granite Sarcophagus

In brief: Egyptian scientists who analyzed the mummies found inside have managed to establish the stature, sex, and age of the mummies covered in the so-called ‘mummy juice’. Curiously, more than 25 thousand people had signed a petition for drinking the juice that remained in the sarcophagus for thousands of years.

The Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities has released new details about the giant black granite sarcophagus discovered in Alexandria, Egypt. According to the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities, the skeletons found inside the mysterious sarcophagus unearthed in July and opened despite ‘all warnings’ about alleged ancient curses it might unleash.

A recently unearthed granite Sarcophagus in AlexandriaA close-up of the recently unearthed sarcophagus. Image Credit: Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities.

The enigmatic sarcophagus is considered the ‘largest’ granite sarcophagus ever discovered in Alexandria measuring 185 centimeters tall (6ft), 265 centimeters long (8.6ft), and 165 centimeters wide (5.4 ft.)

Experts say that the ominous sarcophagus remained buried for more than two thousand years 16 feet beneath the surface.

According to reports, the skeletons from the skeleton have been studied by a team of scientists from the Egyptian Antiquities Ministry, who have managed to determine the mummies age, gender, as well as many other details.

The results of the research were published on the Antiquities Ministry’s Facebook page:

The results of the archaeological studies carried out by a team of researchers from the Ministry of Antiquities on the…

Posted by ‎Ministry of Antiquities وزارة الآثار‎ on Sunday, August 19, 2018

According to Dr. Nadia Kheider, Head of the Central Department of Antiquities of Lower Egypt, the first skeleton belongs to a woman between the age of 20 to 25 years old, with a height around 160 to 164 cm.

The second one belongs to a man between the age of 35 to 39 years old, with a height ranging between 160 to 165.5 cm while the third skeleton is for a man between the age of 40 and 44 years old and its height was between 179 to 184.5 cm

Interestingly, experts have also recovered Small gold plates among the bones, measuring 5cm by 3cm (about 2in by 1in). Experts say that the plates feature delicate artwork and most likely were used to represent military ranks. The plates are being studied in detail by experts.

In addition, researchers from the Ministry of Antiquities also discovered a hole in one of the man’s skulls. The hole, experts say, was not what caused the man’s death, but is evidence of head surgery, better known as Trepanation.

“This surgery is the oldest surgical intervention ever known since pre-history but was rare in Egypt,” Dr. Zeinab Hashish, the head of the researchers’ team, said.

Interestingly, only a few skulls from ancient Egypt were found to have undergone the procedure, making this find an extremely important one.

The research on the mummies is not over.

Soon, experts will be carrying out new studies on the bones, including DNA analysis and CT scans, to determine whether they were members of a single family.

In regard to the dark, icky mummy juice found inside the sarcophagus, experts have now confirmed it is, in fact, sewage water, tinted by the corpses’ decayed wrappings.




Scientists Decipher Ancient Egyptian Papyrus Revealing Incredible Medical And Scientific Details

In brief: The recently deciphered papyrus scrolls contain the oldest known medical discussion about kidneys, as well as notes on treatments for eye diseases and a description of a pregnancy test.

“When you hear about the history of science, the focus is often on the Greek and Roman material. But we have Egyptian material that goes much further back. One of our medical texts was written 3,500 years ago when there was no written material on the European continent,” said one of the researchers participating in the new study.

This little piece of papyrus is believed to contain a type of Oracle question. The author has written two possible outcomes for a situation and asked the gods to indicate which one was the truth. Credit: The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection/ University of Copenhagen.

Ancient manuscripts that had not been translated until now have offered fascinating insights into the scientific and medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago, reports ScienceNordic.

The manuscripts are part of the so-called Carlsberg Papyrus Collection, safeguarded at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, where an international team of researchers is collaborating to interpret the unpublished documents.

The extensive Carlsberg Papyrus Collection includes more than 1,400 manuscripts, most of which date from 2000 B.C. until the year 1000 A.D., informs the director of the collection, Kim Ryholt, professor of the Department of Intercultural and Regional Studies of the University of Copenhagen.

Seen here are ancient Egyptian instructions for a 3,500-year-old pregnancy test. Image Credit: Carlsberg Papyrus Collection / University of Copenhagen

Most of the texts have not been translated since they were donated to the university in 1939.

Now, researchers have begun translating and documenting their meaning. And so far, they’ve found incredible details not only about medicine but about different sciences practiced thousands of years ago in Ancient Egypt.

According to the article by ScienceNordic, experts working on the texts have discovered that the papyrus scrolls include the oldest known medical discussion about kidneys, as well as notes on treatments for eye diseases and a description of a pregnancy test. Along with the medical information, the documents contain references to astronomy, botany, and astrology, the scientists report.

“It’s the oldest known medical text to discuss the kidneys. Until now, some researchers thought that the Egyptians didn’t know about kidneys, but in this text we can clearly see that they did,” said PhD student Amber Jacob from the Institute for the Study of The Ancient World at New York University, USA, and one of four PhD students working on the unpublished manuscripts held in Copenhagen.

Interestignly, the papyri also reveal insights into the Egyptian view on astrology

“Today, astrology is seen as a pseudoscience, but in antiquity it was different. It was an important tool for predicting the future and it was considered a very central science,” explains Egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Head of the Carlsberg Papyrus Collection at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark in an article by Science Nordic.

“For example, a king needed to check when was a good day to go to war,” he says.

“A large part of the texts is still unpublished. Texts about medicine, botany, astronomy, astrology, and other sciences practiced in Ancient Egypt,” explains Ryholt.

The international team of researchers is now translating the previously unexplored texts, which according to one of the researchers, contain new and exciting insights into Ancient Egyptian history.

“It’s totally unique for me to be able to work with the unpublished material. It doesn’t happen in many places around the world.”




Behold: Here Are 15 of the Greatest Ancient Cities in Human History

Some scholars argue that around the end of the last ice age, some 12 thousand years ago, our ancestors started building complex ancient cities around the globe.

In terms of written history, there is evidence of complex cities existing on Earth around 10,000 years ago. In this article, we take a look at 15 of the greatest ancient cities ever built on the surface of the planet.

Sunset at Angkor WatThe temple complex of Angkor Wat, in the ancient city of Angkor.

Jericho

According to scholars, Jericho was a center of commerce and living as early as 9,000 BC. Jericho is considered one of the oldest continually occupied cities on the surface of the planet.

Home to the lucrative opobalsamum plant, Jericho produced the most expensive oil in the world, thousands of years ago.

In addition to being a center of commerce and industry, the city was was home to a number of temples and military fortifications.

Uruk

We can’t write a list describing the greatest cities in ancient times without leaving a spot for Uruk, considered the largest city on the planet around 3500 BC. Much of its history has been lost as newer structures were built upon its ancient buildings.

Uruk means land between the rivers.

Ur

Once home to more than 100,000 people, the only thing that remains of this great city today are its ruins.

However, around 2000 BC, the city of Ur was home to some of the most amazing handcrafted luxury items in the region, made of precious metals and stones imported from different sources.

Babylon

Scholars estimate that Babylon was the largest city in the world from circa 1770 – circa 1670 BC, and again between circa. 612 – circa. 320 BC. Some argue it was the first city to reach a population above 200,000. The city was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia. Babylon was built on the shores of the Euphrates river. Its ruins are located in present-day Hillah, Iraq.

Mari

An ancient city few have heard of. Despite not being as famous as other cities like Babylon, Uruk, or Jericho, the city of Mari was a robust trade capital of ancient Mesopotamia. It was a central marketplace of the region through which stone, timber, agricultural goods, and pottery were moved.

In terms of archaeology, the city of Mari proved to be a treasure-trove for scholars. In 1933, archaeological excavations at Mari resulted in the discovery of more than 25,000 tablets that included significant information about the administration of state during the 2nd millennium BC and the nature of diplomatic relations between the political entities in the region.

Çatalhöyük

Modern-day Turkey is the home of countless archaeological sites that helped rewrite history as we know it.

The ancient city of Çatalhöyük is considered by many scholars as the world’s first city.

In fact, there is evidence that around 6,500 BC, the city was home to three thousand people.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the city was densely built, resulting in people walking on the roofs of its mud-brick homes instead of the street.

The city was mysteriously abandoned around 5,700 BC. Archeological excavations revealed a wall painting in the city which has been dubbed as the oldest map in existence and the oldest landscape painting in the world.

Nineveh

The ancient city of Nineveh (located in modern-day Iraq) is believed to have been inhabited as early as 6000 BC. Built as a massive religious center of the Goddess Ishtar, Nineveh spread across more than 7 square kilometers.

Archeological evidence suggests Nineveh was the largest city in the world for nearly half a century, until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked.

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) occupied the site during the mid-2010 destroying countless historic monuments and artifacts.

Nimrud

Another ancient city located in present-day Iraq.

The city of Nimrud was home to more than 80,000 people around 800 BC. Nimrud served as the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The city was identified as the Biblical city of Calah. Regrettably, this is another city that was bulldozed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

Alexandria

We can’t speak of the greatest cities on the surface of the planet without mentioning Alexandria, a city built by Alexander the Great.

Alexandria was home to the Great Library of Alexandria—considered the largest library in the world. The city was also home to one of the tallest buildings on Earth, the Great Lighthouse of Alexandria.

Baghdad.

The city of Baghdad was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Soon after its foundation, the city became a significant cultural, commercial, and academic center in the Islamic world. According to experts, the city of Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million. The city was planned as a circle about 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter, coming to be known as the “Round City.”

Memphis

Egypt is undoubtedly home to many mind-bending ancient cities, and Memphis is surely one of them.

After the unification of Egypt around 3100 BC, the city of Memphis was founded as the new capital. The city is located some twenty kilometers south of present-day Cairo.

The city is well-known for its nearby pyramids as well as the Great Sphinx. According to Tertius Chandler, Memphis was called home by some 30,000 inhabitants and was by far the largest settlement worldwide from the time of its foundation until around 2250 BCE and from 1557 to 1400 BCE.

Chang’an

Its name means ‘Perpetual place’. In 700AD, the city of Chang’an was home to a population of more than one million people. It was the capital of more than 10 dynasties.

Chang’an had been settled since Neolithic times.

Poet Bai Juyi said the city had “hundreds of, thousands of houses — like a great chessboard … like a huge field planted with rows of cabbages.” The city lives on today as the city of Xi’an.

Varanasi

Varanasi, in India, is one of the oldest cities in the world. Believed to have been inhabited since at least the 11th century BC. The city is considered a major religious hub in India. It’s also the holiest of the seven sacred cities in Hinduism and Jainism. According to Hindu mythology, Varanasi was founded by Shiva one of three principal deities along with Brahma and Vishnu. One of its most notorious sites is the Golden Temple, which honors the Hindu god Shiva.

Angkor

The ancient city of Angkor served as a capital for the Khmer empire flourishing from the ninth to the 15th century. Home to the magnificent temple complex of Angkor Wat. However, the city of Angkor is home to more than one thousand temples. In 2007, an international team of researchers sed satellite photography and other modern techniques to discover that Angkor had been the largest pre-industrial city in the world.

Teotihuacan

Located in modern-day Mexico, the ancient city of Teotihuacan home to some of the most impressive pyramids on the surface of the planet. While we still don’t know who built this ancient city or when, archaeologists estimate that around the first millennium AD, Teotihuacan emerged as the largest city in America, with a population estimated at more than125,000 people.

Featured Image: The Round city of Baghdad. Image Credit: Pinterest.

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20 Incredible Facts About the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead

In ancient times, people in Egypt were buried accompanied by a series of magical spells to help them travel to the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead is the modern name given to an ancient funerary text belonging to ancient Egypt that was used from the beginning of the new Empire (around 1550 BC) until around 50 BC.

The Book of the dead was one of the most important ancient texts in Egypt. More than being a book, it was a collection of texts consisting of various magic spells that were ‘designed’ to assist a dead person journey through the Duat, and into the afterlife.

In this article, I’ve summed up 30 of the most interesting and relevant facts about this fascinating ancient ‘book.’

“This is an excellent example of one of the many fine vignettes (illustrations) from the Book of the Dead of Hunefer. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw.

Rw nw prt m hrw is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day.

However, many authors acknowledge that a better translation would be Book of Emerging Forth into the Light.

Despite being called a book, the Egyptian booked the dead wasn’t really a book.

The book of the dead was a collection of magic spells that were created in order to help a dead person pass the Duat, and enter the afterlife.

Not one Book of the dead is the same.

Surviving papyri contain a varied selection of religious and magical texts and differ markedly in their illustrations.

Over a period of around one thousand years, the book of the dead was composed by ancient Egyptian priests.

The texts and images of the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead were both magical as well as religious.

Some people in ancient Egypt commissioned their own copies of the book, containing a selection of magic spells they considered most relevant for their own progression into the afterlife.

The ancient Egyptian Book of the dead belongs to a tradition of so-called funerary texts which include the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.

The Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts were not painted on papyrus,  but rather onto objects.

The first funerary texts were the so-called Pyramid Texts and were used for the first time in the pyramid of Unis, belonging to the last pharaoh of the V Dynasty, around 2400 BC.

The purpose of the Pyramid Texts was to aid the dead Pharaoh to take his place amongst the gods.

The Book of the Dead first emerged in the city of Thebes. According to historians, the first book appeared at the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BC.

The Book of the dead was initially only used by royal families.

However, after some time, it became a common practice by regional governors and other high-ranking officials.

Eventually, people from all over Egypt developed their own copies of the book.

According to historians, some 192 spells are known to date. Although no single manuscript has ever been discovered containing all of the spells.

It is believed that the last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BC. Despite this, some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times




Researchers Find A New Sphinx Statue Located Beneath The Surface In Egypt

In brief: Egyptian workers have come across an underground sphinx statue during roadworks in the Upper Egyptian city of Luxor, reports the news agency Youm7, citing the head of the Antiquities Department Mohammed Abdel Asis.

Another extremely interesting discovery has been made in Egypt.

During the repair of a road in the Egyptian city of Luxor, construction workers discovered what seems to be a completely new statue of a Sphinx located beneath the surface, said the head of the Antiquities Department, Mohamed Abdel Aziz. According to Youm7, the road beneath which the Sphinx statue was discovered connects the Karnak and Luxor temples.

While still little to no information regarding the discovery is available, the officials explained that the statute is located beneath the surface, and has the shape of a lion and the head of a human, appearing to be similar in design to the Great Sphinx of Giza.

However, the newly found Sphinx won’t see light anytime soon.

As noted by the experts, excavation works won’t be done in a hurry, in order to prevent any possible damage to the ancient statue. All necessary precautions to preserve the statue located beneath the surface will be taken by archaeologists.

The Great Sphinx of Giza is considered an ancient marvel not only because of its size and confusing design but because of the countless mysteries that surround this ancient structure.

Together with the three pyramids, the Great Sphinx found on the plateau of Giza – about 500 km from the place where the new statue was found – is one of the most emblematic monuments of Egypt.

It is also one of the most controversial ones out there, since both the age of the Sphinx, as well as its mysterious shape, and its human head have been the subject of intense debates between experts for decades.

The Great Sphinx of Giza was curiously also discovered almost completely buried beneath the sand.

It was in 1817 when the first modern archaeological dig, led by Giovanni Battista Caviglia managed to uncover the Sphinx’s chest completely. 

This ancient monument has captured the imagination of not only archaeologists but scientists and tourists who have visited this ancient statue since time immemorial.